References
References
RT Bor group – Copper Smelter Refinery Bor, Control system for waste heat utilization
During production process at new Smelter and Sulfuric Acid factories waste gasses are cooled inside boilers; as the result, the certain quantity of water steam is produced, with defined thermodynamic parameters. One boiler is installed at the new Smelter factory, the other at Sulfuric Acid factory (FSK). The certain steam quantity is used for technology production at Copper Smelter Refinery (TIR) factories (Electrolytic Refinery, Oxygen production plant, Smelter and FSK), while the „waste“ quantity is used for electric power production. That way the overall efficiency of the TIR is significantly improved

The new Smelter factory produces steam of the following charasteristics:
  • nominal production quantity: 23.6 t/h
  • pressure: 6000 kPa
  • temperature: 275oC
while the new FSK produces steam:
  • pressure: 2200 kPa
  • temperature: 220oC

At the new Electric Power plant facility the following process equipment and devices are installed:
  • steam turbine with generator
  • smelter and FSK boiler water feed reservoir
  • condensate reservoir 
  • feed pumps, condensate pumps
  • heat exchangers
  • steam pressure and temperature reduction plants
  • water chemical treatment plant (HPV)
There are two hydraulic pipelines comming from HPV: the pipeline for decarbonized water (DEKA), and the pipeline for demineralized water (DEMI); the new Electric Power plant control system controls all pumps on these (DEKA line: two pumps – befor and after filtration device, direct start; DEMI – one pump, frequency regulated, pressure control loop).

Inside Electric Power plant facility there are three pair of pumps (the pair consists of working and spare pump): condensate line pumps, Smelter boiler water feed pumps and FSK boiler water feed pumps. These pums are driven by soft starter, controlled and moniored by Electric Power plant control system. 

Water transport hydraulic parameters (flow, pressure, level at the tanks), steam pressure and temperature reduction, e.t.c. are contrlled by PID regulating loops implemented at Electric Power plant control system; there are 12 regulating loops, with regulating valves as actuators. 
The steam turbine and generator control system is realized by independent control system, connected over Profibus DP (as the slave) to Electric Power plant control system 
The mid-voltage plant (energy from generator, connected over distribution panel to 5.25kV electric network) sends its electric parameters collected by Siprotec devices towards Electric Power plant control system over Profibus DP network (voltage, current, active and reactive power, e.t.c).

Electric Power plant control system is connected by Profibus DP/DP coupler with Smelter and FSK control systems (implemented by SNC Lavalin and Outotec), and exchanges necessary process informations with these production facilities.
Electric Power plant control system includes the following process signal transmitters, with Hart interface:
  • 7 Vortex steam and water flowmeters
  • 21 steam and water pressure transmitters
  • 20 steam and water temperature transmitters
  • 3 level transmitters

Electric Power plant control system is based on Siemens PCS7 Decentralized Control System, of following configuration:
  • Automatisation Station (AS), realized as industrial controller of high reliability, insensitive to errors, designed with redundancy  type 1 of 2, so it remains available in case of failure of one of the subsystems; this is  "Fault tolerant system," and implies that all major components of a computer system are duplicated.
  • Operator control subsystem is based on two standalone stations, redundant connection; this implies that operator subsystem is available even though on of the computer stations fails
  • Decentralized PLC located at remote pressure reduction plant, S7-315, by fibre-optic Profibus DP connected to main control system, programmed to perform its control loops autonomously event though connection to DCS is broken
  • The Hart-interface analog input modules and transmitters of DCS allow operator to have more detailed process informations from the measuring place, i.e. not only the main value 4-20mA (i.e.: besides flow signal, DCS collects additional informations: transmitter state, temperature, pressure at the measuring place, e.t.c.)

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